2 Gifts, Talents, and The Dyslexias: Wellsprings, Springboards, and
Finding Foley's Rocks Priscilla L. Vail Annals of Dyslexia, Vol. 40, 1990
Sometimes courage is heralded by trumpets, and successes make headlines in the newspapers or appear on the television news. But other times satisfaction slips in silently and is whispered in a voice. We need to be on the lookout for both kinds of glory.
3. Whole Language vs. Code Emphasis: Underlying Assumptions and Their Implicationsfor Reading Instruction Y Liberman A. M. Liberman Annals of Dyslexia, Vol. 40, 1990
Haskins Laboratories New Haven, Connecticut
Promoters of Whole Language hew to the belief that learning to read and write can be as natural and effortless as learning to perceive and produce speech. From this it follows that there is no special key to reading and writing, no explicit principle to be taught that, once learned, makes the written language transparent to a child who can speak. Lacking such a principle, Whole Language falls back on a method that encourages children to get from print just enough information to provide a basis for guessing at the gist. A very different method, called Code Emphasis, presupposes that learning the spoken language is, indeed, perfectly natural and seemingly effortless, but only because speech is managed, as reading and writing are not, by a biological specialization that automatically spells or parses all the words the child commands. Hence, a child normally learns to use words without ever becoming explicitly aware that each one is formed by the consonants and vowels that an alphabet represents. Yet it is exactly this awareness that must be taught if the child is to grasp the alphabetic principle and so understand how the artifacts of an alphabet transcribe the natural units of language. There is evidence that preliterate children do not, in fact, have much of this awareness; that the amount they do have predicts their reading achievement; that the awareness can be taught; and that the relative difficulty of learning it that some children have may be a reflection of a weakness in the phonological component of their natural capacity for language.
Various studies have estimated the number of children who fail at reading to be 20-25 percent of the school population (Stedman and Kaestle 1987). While it is generally agreed that this presents a serious problem, opinion is deeply divided about its underlying causes and inevitably, therefore, about the proper route to its solution. In this paper, we will explore two current views. One of these is commonly referred to by its partisans as Whole Language; the other, which we embrace, we call Code Emphasis, borrowing the name given it by Jeanne Chall (1967).
4 The ''sight reading" method of teaching reading, as a source of reading disability. Reprinted from The Journal of Educational Psychology, February 1929 in:
Description: This classic, first published in 1937 and reprinted in 1999 with a foreword by Dr. Richard Masland, former president of the World Federation of Neurology, is a tribute to a man who, more than any other, aroused the attention of the scientific community and provided the sound educational principles on which much teaching of individuals with dyslexia today is based. The collection of papers reprinted in this book interprets the essence of Dr. Orton's pioneering work in the field of developmental dyslexia.